The idea of ecological civilization is of growing importance as an antidote to the crisis of capitalism facing all humanity in today’s society. Ecological civilization aims at the mode of life in which humans live in harmony with the natural world, recognizing the shared proprietorship of both. Therefore, communitarianism, that is, a communal way of life, matters in such a mode of life and hence the need to shed new light on Sumak Kawsay (buen vivir) of the indigenous people in the Andes of Latin America. In the age of the Inca Empire, the Andean indigenous people sought to realize Sumak Kawsay they sought in their community, which they called ayllu. It meant respect for the natural would, which they called pachamama; moreover, it extolled the mutual harmony of mankind and nature.
They lived a communal life of sharing land and exchanging labor, although the transactions within ayllu were based on realistic needs, and were accompanied by coercion and punishment. Clearly this forms a stark contrast to life in today’s capitalist society where competition, discrimination and hatred dominate. The life of the Andean indigenous people, which seeks coexistence with nature and cooperation among community members, is worth noting particularly as a new alternative to the life under capitalism.